Abstract:Context: The currently available drugs for the management of pain, fever and inflammatory conditions presents with many known adverse effects, hence the search for new drugs without adverse effects is required.Objective: To evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of Tinospora cordifolia (AETC) in rodents.Materials and methods: The leaves of Tinospora cordifolia were identified and authenticated by Botanist. The air dried course powdered leaves were extracted with distilled water and used to evaluate analgesic action by Eddy’s hot plate method in mice and anti-inflammatory action by carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. It was tested in five groups of rodents (n=6) for each activity, using 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg of the test drug, 100mg/kg of test drug with 5mg/kg of diclofenac. Diclofenac 5mg/kg and distilled water were used as standard and control, respectively, for both analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.Results: Tinospora cordifolia showed significant increase in the reaction time (pain threshold) in doses of 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 100mg/kg with 5mg/kg of diclofenac after 30, 60 and 90 minutes of administration. In the same above doses, Tinospora cordifolia showed 32.63%, 36.63% and 40.5% inhibition of paw edema respectively at the end of three hours. With diclofenac the percentage of inhibition was 35.64.Conclusion: The present study has shown that AETC has significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The results indicate that identification of active principle from the leaves may add a new, potential analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug to treat acute conditions.
Archive for February, 2012
Abstact :BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE:The beneficial effect of regular exercise on physical fitness is well documented. However there is also evidence that acute and chronic exercise affect platelet activation in different ways. Few studies are available on effect ofexercise on platelets function. Therefore, present work has been undertaken to study the effect of acute heavy (severe) and regular moderate exercise on platelet aggregation,heart rate and blood pressure in normal healthy untrained subjects. METHODS:Sample:60 healthy volunteers (30 males and 30 females) of age between 18 & 21 years. Exercise schedule was as follows,Acute heavy exercise(AHE):running on 400 meters track as fast as possible and as long as possible (minimum 4 rounds). Regular moderate exercise(RME):running on 400 meters track with moderate speed so as to complete one round in 3 minutes. Two rounds per day for 3 months.Blood samples were collected and heart rate (HR)& blood pressure(BP) were recorded at rest, immediately after completion of AHE & RME.Platelet aggregability was estimated by O’Brien J. R.method using ADP. RESULTS:Very significant (P<0.0001)increase in platelet aggregability, HR and systolic BP were observed after AHE. After RME platelet aggregability was very significantly(P<0.0001) decreased while HR and SBP were significantly increased. HR and SBP showed significantly lesser increase after RMEcompared with AHE. Diastolic BP didn’t show any significant change after either type of exercise. All results were same in both sexes. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION:Regular moderate exercise decreases platelet aggregability and lowers the rise in HR and SBP after exercise, showing protective function in coronary artery disease. Whereas acute heavy exercise increases platelet aggregability and shows higher rise in HR and SBP after exercise. Exercise should be cautiously advised in coronary artery diseases.
Abstract: The knowledge of development of stomach including effective gastric emptying, and motor functions is essential for the provision of optimal nutritional care of the very preterm infant. The generation of functional neuromuscular activity within the pre-natal gastrointestinal tract requires the coordinated development of enteric neurons and glial cells and concentric layers of smooth muscle1. Very few documented studies have been done on developing gastric musculature and nerve plexuses. There has long been divergent and sometimes conflicting views expressed about various aspects of the structure of the pylorus, the pathology of which is implicated in Infantile Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis2.