ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Arthritis is the initial manifestation of many joint disorder. The most common causes of arthritis are crystal,trauma and infection.Synovial fluid[S.F] analysis provides an easy, noninvasive option in differentiating inflammatory from noninflammatory arthritis.OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study is to determine whether S.F Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) can be useful in differentiating inflammatory from noninflammatory arthritis. METHODS:A total of 56 patients with knee arthritis with joint effusion who were admitted in Vinayaka Mission Kirupananda Variyar Medical College and Hospital, Salem and those who attended the orthopaedic outpatient clinic during the period of October 2011 to March 2012 have been included in this study. There were 14 Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), 7 Crystal induced arthritis, 3 Septic arthritis and 32 Osteoarthritis (OA).RESULTS:Statistically significant difference in mean synovial fluid ADA and hsCRP concentration between inflammatory 35.77±3.95 IU/L, 19.69±4.46 µg/ml and noninflammatory arthritis 12.93±2.06 IU/L, 2.77±0.91 µg/ml (p values<0.0001, 0.0001) was observed. Statistically significant difference in mean synovial fluid ADA and hsCRP concentration was observed when rheumatoid arthritis (22.98±3.21 IU/L,17.54±4.23 µg/ml), crystal induced (24.23±3.34 IU/L, 19.47±3.77 µg/ml), septic arthritis (60.1±5.31 IU/L,22.07±5.40 µg/ml) were compared with osteoarthritis (12.93±2.06 IU/L,2.77±0.91 µg/ml)CONCLUSION:Synovial fluid ADA and hsCRP helps to differentiate inflammatory from noninflammatory arthritis
Archive for September, 2012
Abstract Anomalies of spleen include persistant lobulation, multilobulated spleen, accessory spleen, splenunculi, wandering spleen, ectopic spleen, asplenia, polysplenia and splenogonadal fusion. Anomalies of spleen may or may not be associated with anomalies in other organs. Present study is a case observed in the department of anatomy at Govt. Medical college Aurangabad during routine cadaveric dissection for I M.B.B.S. students. The cadaver showed multilobulated spleen ( six lobules) of variable sizes completely separate from each other. Each covered by separate capsule and having independent branches from splenic artery supplying each of them. Histological sections of the tissues confirmed the features consistent with the spleen. No other abnormal developmental features were seen in the said cadaver particularly the heart and vessels. Present study was compared with the work of previous workers. Anamolies of spleen are important in respect of the clinical conditions where torsion/ infarction of the splenic lobules can occur, moreover in cases where spleenectomy is indicated. All the respective lobules (multilobulated spleen) should be resected otherwise even the smallest splenic lobule can take over function fully, thereby nullifying the effect of spleenectomy.
ABSTRACTLimb body wall complex /Body stalk anomaly refers to a rare complicated polymalformative fetal malformationsyndrome of uncertain etiology.LBWC was first described byVan Allen et al; in (1987)1.The two of the three following anomalies must be present to establish the diagnosis:1. Exencephaly /Encephalocele with facial clefts.2. Thoraco –Abdominoschisis/ventral body wall defects. 3.Limb defects.No case of postnatal survival is reported so far. It presents twodistinct phenotypesdescribed by Russo et al. (1993)2and later Cusi et alin (1996)3, according to the foetoplacental relationships.1. Placento-cranial and 2.Placento-abdominal types.Limb body wall complex is invariably fatal and incompatible with life. Serum alpha-fetoprotein measurement and ultrasonography examination is the key to the prenatal diagnosis and followed by medical termination of pregnancy.Among the 168 livebirths at S.V.S. Medical College& hospital Mahaboonagar (INDIA) during the periodof 2010-2011 we came across an aborted female fetus. It was weighing 1800gms, 30 weeks of gestation diagnosed by antenatal ultrasonography as ventral body wall defect. It was associated with ompholocele, severe scoliosis and limb defects.Its confirmation of the diagnosis of Limb body wall complex with Placento-abdominal type was done by postmortem fetography.
Abstract Context: Most common type of congenital abnormality of urinary system is the abnormality of renal collecting system. One such variation is presence of bifid ureter. Objective: To describe and analyze the clinical and embryological significance of bilateral bifid ureter with accessory renal artery. Design: The presence of bilateral bifid ureters was seen as an incidental finding during routine educational dissection. The etiology of this variant is fission of the ureteric bud during embryogenesis. In the same cadaver, bilateral accessory renal artery was seen, arising from abdominal aorta opposite to inferior poles of kidneys. Outcome: The knowledge of relationship of renal arteries and collecting system is necessary for effective endo-urological applications and intra-renal surgeries.Conclusion: Bifid ureter with accessory renal artery forms one of the common differential diagnoses for ureteric calculi. Such anatomical variants may simulate pathological obstruction of urinary tract and must be considered while performing endo-urological procedures.
ABSTRACT Objective:Drug abuse is use of drugs that causes physical, psychological, legal or social harm to the individual user or to others affected by the drug user’s behavior. Youth substance use and the resulting damage are recognized as significant global public health issues in society today and the loss in terms of human potential is incalculable. There is a need to stem the tide of drug abuse. Hence this study was done to evaluate the drug abuse pattern in youth. Materials & Methods:A population based cross sectional observational study was conducted. Participants were from three different colleges in Bangalore. Study was conducted on 300 participants during the month of August 2011. A standard questionnaire was adopted from CSR.Result: This paper evaluated the drug abuse pattern in both the sexes of age group 17- 21 years. Only 293 questionnaires were valid. The present study showed that tobacco abuse was high among both sexes of urban background when compared to alcohol and other drugs. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse and to conclude the results. Conclusion: Substance use and abuse wear out individuals, families and communities. Progress should be made in identifying precursors to use, understanding the developmental progress of alcohol and drug use disorders, and designing prevention programs that successfully avert substance use and abuse.
Abstract Recent evidence suggests that overactivity of central serotonin 5- HT2 and dopamine D2 receptors is involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and that central serotonin 5 HT2 receptor antagonism has been associated with efficacy against negative symptoms of schizophrenia and a lower propensity to cause extrapyramidal side effects. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic agent has both dopamine D2 and serotonin 5- HT2 antagonistic activity. To demonstrate dopamine D2 receptor antagonism, risperidone was studied for its effect on apomorphine and methamphetamine induced stereotyped behavior in rats. Risperidone was also studied for its effect on 5- hydroxytryptophan induced head twitch activity in mice, a central serotonin 5- HT2 mediated behavior for demonstrating central 5-HT2 receptor antagonism. It was observed that risperidone antagonized the apomorphine and methamphetamine induced stereotyped behavior in rats as well as the 5- hydroxytryptophan (5-HT) induced head twitch activity in mice, in a dose dependent manner which shows that risperidone combines both central dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2 receptor antagonism.
ABSTRACTContext: India has been the leading destination for the IT and BPO industries in the last decade and in 2005 IT and BPO industries in India employed about 700,000 people directly and about 2.5 million indirectly.Objective: The main objective was to identify the physical and psychological health problems faced by the call handlers and to know the existing working practices in these call centres.Design, setting and participants: An eight-part study tool covering various topics was used in the call centres situated in Bangalore, which agreed to be a part of the study. In all, 176 call handlers participated in the study.Results: Majority of the respondents were in the age group of 21-30 yrs and were males. 119 (67.6%) had less than a year of experience working in the call centres. 94 (54.3%) respondents had rotation shift duties and 144 (81.8%) worked on an average for 8-12 hrs per day. 50% of the respondents had some problems related to their vocal health, 22 (12.5%) complained of problems related to their ears and 126 (71.6%) of the respondents had musculoskeletal pain and the commonest region being the neck and the back.Unmarried respondents were found to be significantly more under stress when compared to married respondents. Working in call centre had interfered with the call handler’s interaction with family members and social life.Conclusions: To arrive at more concrete conclusions and recommendations and to enforce legislations governing call centres, which is challenging.