ABSTRACT:-Cancer is an ageold disease which has claimed millions of human lives along with other fatal diseases . Cancer of the cervix is the most prevalent form of cancer in developing countries especially the South -East Asia region  The present study is undertaken to determine the efficacy of the crystallisation test for the detection of malignancy in cancer cases of the female genital tract and also to determine the efficacy of this test to detect the precancerous conditions ( Erosion of cervix etc.) of the female genital tract and to know whether the results of crystallisation test correlate with the histopathological diagnosis of cancer and precancerous cases. Crystallisation test was carried out in 300 female patients from Gynaecology wards of Government Medical College and Hospital, Aurangabad.Out of 300 cases studied ,211 cases were diagnosed cancer patients , 39 cases were in precancerous stage and 50 were non-cancer cases.The  non-cancer cases, including 10 normal cases were taken as a control.Out of 211 diagnosed cancer cases,92 were histologicaly proved cancer case. Positive results were obtained in 94.7% cases of malignancy.Positive results were obtained into 84.6% of precancerous cases. To all the cancer and non-cancer cases of the female genital tract,Chi-Square test was applied,degree of freedom was calculated and the significance of the test i.e. P value was calculated.P value was found to be far less than 0.001 .This indicates that the crystallization test is statistically highly significant test for the detection of malignancy.

Key-words :- Crystallization , malignancy , precancerous.

 INTRODUCTON

The current methods of confirmation of cancerous neoplasms are histopathological,cytological,endoscopic techniques and roentgenic studies. However  these studies are valuable only when the growths are obvious.Pfeiffer(1938) advanced a new method  for cancer detection by specific crystallization pattern of cupric chloride in admixture with blood of cancer patient. 

The present work has been undertaken to detect malignant lesions as well as precancerous lesions eg.(Erosion of cervix etc.) of the female genital tract and to know whether  this test is useful where the cancerous lesion is inaccessible to biopsy and other procedures.It is also undertaken to know whether this test is useful for mass screening programmes for cancer and whether it can be utilized as scanning method in cancerous and precancerous conditions.

MATERIAL AND METHODS            

When an organic extract is added to a solution of cupric chloride and the resultant mixture allowed to crystallize , the crystals formed assume a pattern, different from that of the crystals which develop from cupric chloride solution alone.The pattern of arrangement of crystals varies with the kind and qualitative characteristic of  the organic extract, and is specific for that extract.The present study has shown that a definite arrangement of crystals is produced when blood from normal persons and from patients with malignancy, is added to cupric chloride solution.

Crystallizatin test was carried out in 300 females from Gynaecology ward of Medical College and Hospital, Aurangabad. Out of 300 cases, 211 were diagnosed cancer cases, 39 were precancerous cases and 50 were non-cancer cases.The non-cancer cases including 10 normal cases were taken as a control for cancer cases.

 Out of 211 diagnosed cancer cases, 92 were histologically proved  cancer cases.Crystallization test was carried out in all the cases to know whether it was positive or negative for cancer, whether the localization of crystals in the genital one, was proper or not and whether the results of crystallization test correlate with thehistopathological diagnosis of cancer and precancerous cases.

The blood samples were collected from non-cancer patients, histologically proved cancer patients and suspected cancer patients (precancerous cases),by pricking the ring finger with usual aseptic precautions.Eight drops of blood from a cancer patient were allowed to fall on a special filter paper (Whatman No.1) on an area approximately 1 cm in diameter and were left to dry.The parts of the filter paper with dried drops of blood were cut out, and were dissolved in 8 ml of distilled water in a test tube.Four drops of this diluted blood solution were added to 10 ml of 20% filtered cupric chloridesolution in a calibrated test tube and mixed gently. The mixture was poured gently in a flat bottom petridish (10 cm  diameter )known as “Assay Petridish”.

 Two more petridishes were prepared as control.In one petridish 10 ml of filtered cupric chloride solution was poured.In the other petridish, mixture of 4 drops of blood solution from normal healthy person with 10 ml of filtered cupric chloride solution was poured.Thepetridishes were carefully arranged inside the crystallization chamber i.e. incubator at 320C for a period of 19 hours, for complete crystallization under controlled humidity.The test was also carried out in 250cancer and precancerous cases and 50 non-cancer cases.

 OBSERVATIONS

Following crystal patterns were observed  in the petridishes under study as seen by the dissecting microscope:

1)      The crystal pattern with pure  cupric chloride solution showed anumber of crystals with many centres of gravity. (Figure 2.)

2)      The crystal pattern of the mixture of cupric chloride and blood from a normal healthy person showed a single eccentrically placed centre of gravity. (Figure 3.)

3)      The crystal pattern of the mixture of cupric chloride with blood from a cancer patient and a precancerous patient  showed sharply set off transverse bar formation.(Figure 4 & 5)

The whole crystallization pattern represents the complete human body with definite localization of the various parts of the body,as shown in Figure-1.Accordingly, the crystallization field is divided into four quadrants by drawing vertical and horizontal axes intersecting at centre of gravity which is localized eccentrically in the field towards one side.This is known as the localization map,which outlines the various parts of the body.

In figure-1 , only the four quadrants and the genital zone or zone of sexual organs and peripheral or border zone are shown.

                                                                      FIGURE-1

  

A-A : Vertical axis                                        M-M : Horizontal axis.

 The intersection of the A-A and M-M axes = centre of gravity.Number 1,2,3,4 show four quadrants of the crystallization field.

            The hatched portion = peripheral or border zone.

            S = Genital zone or zone of sexual organs.

 

TABLE-1

Sr. no.

SUPERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY SYNDROME - Supriya Garapati*, S. Saritha**, Praveen Kumar M***.
MULTILOBULATE SPLEEN - A CASE REPORT, Shilpa N. Shewale,Mohammad Laeeque,Shivaji B. Sukre,Chaya V. Diwan