Archive for the ‘ Anatomy ’ Category


ABSTRACT :In most of the Medico legal cases for establishing the identity of the diseased the material brought are either decomposed or disintegrated body parts, the only material relied then can be only bones.Determination of sex by 100 % accuracy is needed to confirm identity. A number of studies using Demarcating point methods are available, but most of the times their efficiency in sorting the sex is very less.  If more than one parameter is used for a bone at least one of the parameters may work and can help in determination of sex.Present study is an attempt to use combination of parameters for determination of sex by using demarcating point method. 203 Human adult femora of known sex (133 males & 66 females) available in Bone Bank of Department of Anatomy Government Medical College Aurangabad were used for the present study.Parameters of femur like Vertical diameter of head, Transverse diameter of head, Biepicondylar width and Mid shaft circumference were measured tabulated and analyzed statistically.Mean, SD, P value Demarkating point of all parameters were evaluated, Demarkating points were cross validated singly and in combination.It was observed that the above parameters were statistically significant and the percentage of femora sorted by combination of parameters was far more than when the parameters were individually used. Thus combination of parameters can be used to get better efficiency in sorting of sex from bones.


 Abstract    Dermatoglyphics is the study of epidermal ridges of palms, soles and fingers. Dermatoglyphic pattern has been studied in various diseases.  In the present study Dermatoglyphic pattern was studied in Breast cancer, 50 Breast cancer patients and 50 normal subjects (free from disease of Breast cancer or family history) were selected and prints of palms and fingers were take.  The prints were analysed by quantitative and qualitative methods like arches, loops, whorls, Interdigital areas, Triradial count, ab ridge count, atd angle, and total finger ridge count. Statistical tests like chi square test, and standard error of difference between two means was used. It was observed that radial and ulnar loops, whorls and arches in left hand showed statistically significant difference. Among the quantitative parameters ab ridge count, and atd angle showed statistically significant difference. Remaining parameters did not show statistically significant difference, Thus dermatoglyphic pattern can be used as a cheap modality in screening of masses at risk of Breast cancer. 

Study Of Carotico- Clinoid Foramen In Dry Human Skulls Of Aurangabad District.- Sanobar I. Shaikh, Rahul K. Ukey, Deepak N. Kawale, Chhaya V.Diwan

ABSTRACT  The Carotico-clinoid foramen is an inconstant structure which is formed by the union of the anterior and middle clinoid processes by a ligament known as the carotico-clinoid ligament (CCL) which may be ossified The present study is to know the prevalence of carotico-clinoid foramen in skulls of Aurangabad District.  For the present study, dry unknown human skulls  from Aurangabad district ,were collected in the Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Aurangabad. The carotico-clinoid foramen was studied in dry human skulls and was observed for various parameters like complete or incomplete, unilateral or bilateral. The data was analysed statistically with Chi square test. The presence of carotico-clinoid foramen was observed in 100 skulls and was found in 24 skull bones (24%). Complete bilateral carotico-clinoid foramen was found in 2 skulls (2%) and complete unilateral foramen was found in 2 skulls (2%), one on the right side and one on the left side. Incomplete bilateral carotico-clinoid foramen was found in 8 skulls (8%).Incomplete unilateral foramen was found in 8 skulls (8%), on right side, 7 skulls (7%) and left side, 1 skull (1%). Bilateral carotico-clinoid foramen, complete right side and incomplete left side was observed in 2 skulls (2%). Bilateral caritico-clinoid foramen, complete left side and incomplete right side was observed in 2 skulls (2%). Variations in the anterior  clinoid process (ACP) other than ossification are rare. The ossified carotico-clinoid ligament (CCL) may have compressive effects on the internal carotid artery. Thus anatomical knowledge of anterior clinoid process (ACP) and the clinoid space is of utmost importance for a neurosurgeon approaching the internal carotid artery or other skull based surgery.  Excision of the ACP may be required for many skull based surgical procedures and the presence of any anomalies such as ossified (CCL) may pose a problem for neurosurgeons.

SUPERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY SYNDROME – Supriya Garapati*, S. Saritha**, Praveen Kumar M***.

Abstract The knowledge of anatomical variations in superior mesenteric artery is of importance to surgeons and radiologists while performing complicated procedures. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is rarest life threatening Gastro vascular disorder characterized by a compression of the third part of Duodenum by Abdominal Aorta and the overlying Superior Mesenteric Artery. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is triggered when there is narrowing of the mesenteric angle and shortening of the distance.We report a case of SMA syndrome which sharply exemplifies its clinical and anatomical features which was identified during routine radiological studies of the Dept. of Radiology, KIMS, Narketpally. The aetiology, presentation, diagnosis and management of this unusual condition are discussed.


ABSTRACT:-Cancer is an ageold disease which has claimed millions of human lives along with other fatal diseases . Cancer of the cervix is the most prevalent form of cancer in developing countries especially the South -East Asia region  The present study is undertaken to determine the efficacy of the crystallisation test for the detection of malignancy in cancer cases of the female genital tract and also to determine the efficacy of this test to detect the precancerous conditions ( Erosion of cervix etc.) of the female genital tract and to know whether the results of crystallisation test correlate with the histopathological diagnosis of cancer and precancerous cases. Crystallisation test was carried out in 300 female patients from Gynaecology wards of Government Medical College and Hospital, Aurangabad.Out of 300 cases studied ,211 cases were diagnosed cancer patients , 39 cases were in precancerous stage and 50 were non-cancer cases.The  non-cancer cases, including 10 normal cases were taken as a control.Out of 211 diagnosed cancer cases,92 were histologicaly proved cancer case. Positive results were obtained in 94.7% cases of malignancy.Positive results were obtained into 84.6% of precancerous cases. To all the cancer and non-cancer cases of the female genital tract,Chi-Square test was applied,degree of freedom was calculated and the significance of the test i.e. P value was calculated.P value was found to be far less than 0.001 .This indicates that the crystallization test is statistically highly significant test for the detection of malignancy.

MULTILOBULATE SPLEEN – A CASE REPORT, Shilpa N. Shewale,Mohammad Laeeque,Shivaji B. Sukre,Chaya V. Diwan

Abstract Anomalies of spleen include persistant lobulation, multilobulated spleen, accessory spleen, splenunculi, wandering spleen, ectopic spleen, asplenia, polysplenia  and  splenogonadal fusion. Anomalies of spleen may or may not be associated with anomalies in other organs. Present study is a case observed in the department of anatomy at Govt. Medical college Aurangabad during routine cadaveric dissection for I M.B.B.S. students. The cadaver showed  multilobulated  spleen ( six lobules) of variable sizes completely separate from each other. Each covered by separate capsule and having independent branches from splenic artery supplying each of them.  Histological sections of the tissues confirmed the features consistent with the spleen. No other abnormal developmental features were seen in the said cadaver particularly the heart and vessels. Present study was compared with the work of previous workers. Anamolies of spleen  are important in respect of the clinical conditions where torsion/ infarction of the splenic lobules can occur, moreover in cases where spleenectomy is indicated. All the respective lobules (multilobulated spleen) should be resected otherwise even the smallest splenic lobule can take over  function  fully, thereby nullifying the effect of spleenectomy.


ABSTRACTLimb body wall complex /Body stalk anomaly refers to a rare complicated polymalformative fetal malformationsyndrome of uncertain etiology.LBWC was first described byVan Allen et al; in (1987)1.The two of the three following anomalies must be present to establish the diagnosis:1. Exencephaly /Encephalocele with facial clefts.2. Thoraco –Abdominoschisis/ventral body wall defects. 3.Limb defects.No case of postnatal survival is reported so far. It presents twodistinct phenotypesdescribed by Russo et al. (1993)2and later Cusi et alin (1996)3, according to the foetoplacental relationships.1. Placento-cranial and 2.Placento-abdominal types.Limb body wall complex is invariably fatal and incompatible with life. Serum alpha-fetoprotein measurement and ultrasonography examination is the key to the prenatal diagnosis and followed by medical termination of pregnancy.Among the 168 livebirths at S.V.S. Medical College& hospital Mahaboonagar (INDIA) during the periodof 2010-2011 we came across an aborted female fetus. It was weighing 1800gms, 30 weeks of gestation diagnosed by antenatal ultrasonography as ventral body wall defect.  It was associated with ompholocele, severe scoliosis and limb defects.Its confirmation of the diagnosis of Limb body wall complex with Placento-abdominal type was done by postmortem fetography.

Bilateral bifid ureter with Accessory renal artery: A case report Vasudha Kulkarni, Ramesh B.R, Prakash.B.S

Abstract   Context: Most common type of congenital abnormality of urinary system is the abnormality of renal collecting system. One such variation is presence of bifid ureter.  Objective: To describe and analyze the clinical and embryological significance of bilateral bifid ureter with accessory renal artery.  Design: The presence of bilateral bifid ureters was seen as an incidental finding during routine educational dissection. The etiology of this variant is fission of the ureteric bud during embryogenesis. In the same cadaver, bilateral accessory renal artery was seen, arising from abdominal aorta opposite to inferior poles of kidneys.   Outcome: The knowledge of relationship of renal arteries and collecting system is necessary for effective endo-urological applications and intra-renal surgeries.Conclusion: Bifid ureter with accessory renal artery forms one of the common differential diagnoses for ureteric calculi. Such anatomical variants may simulate pathological obstruction of urinary tract and must be considered while performing endo-urological procedures.


ABSTRACT Occurrence of variation of the Inca bones was observed in majority of human populations around the world. India has more Inca bones than do neighboring countries. Various geographical and ethnological patterns of frequency variation of the Inca bones were already found. Present study was done on 148 human skulls for the presence or absence of the Inca bones. We classified these bones as class I to class V. They were analyzed for gross incidence and number of fragments of bone. Gross incidence of the Inca bones was found to be 4.054%. The present study besides reporting the variation in the Inca bones also highlights possible genetic and evolutionary mechanism behind its presentation. These are important findings and the knowledge of the Inca bones is of importance to the neuroanatomists, neurosurgeons, radiologists, anthropologist and morphologists

Trifurcation of C5 root & its Clinical Importance

Abstract: Brachial plexus is a complex network of nerves, formed by ventral rami of lower four cervical and first thoracic nerves which supply the upper limb. Though its variations are common, terminal trifurcation of C5 is rare. During routine dissection in anatomy department, in an old male cadaver, multiple variations of brachial plexus were observed on the left side.  It was unique with the absence of superior trunk and lateral cord. The C5 root trifurcated terminally into suprascapular nerve, a root for musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) and posterior division for posterior cord. Musculocutaneous nerve was formed by two separate roots from C5 and C6. Axillary artery was intimately passing between two roots of MCN. Phrenic nerve carried fibres of the nerve to subclavius from C5. Knowledge of these variations is important not only for anatomists but also to neurosurgeons, physicians and anaesthetists for diagnosis, planning the surgeries and avoiding the complications. Key words – Brachial plexus, superior (upper) trunk, suprascapular nerve, musculocutaneous nerve, nerve impingement

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