Archive for the ‘ Biochemistry ’ Category

ABSTRACT Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem across the world and commonly involves the lungs. Analysis of adenosine deaminase activity is a very useful diagnostic approach to achieve a more rapid and precise diagnosis in serosal fluids and serum of pulmonary tuberculosis.  Objectives: To estimate the serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels in pulmonary tuberculosis and other common respiratory diseases & to evaluate the role of serum ADA estimation in differentiation of tubercular and common non tubercular respiratory diseases. Methods:  The study was a hospital based, non randomized comparative study conducted at Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore and DOT centres of RNTCP, BBMP, Bangalore.                                        We measured serum adenosine deaminase levels in 3 groups, group Ι: 41 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, group ΙΙ: 30 cases of tubercular pleural effusion, group ΙΙΙ: 49 cases of non tubercular respiratory diseases viz, bronchiectasis, chronic bronchitis in the age group of 20 – 64 years over a period of one year. Age and sex matched 30 healthy volunteers, were taken as controls. Estimation of serum ADA was done by sensitive colorimetric method described by Giusti and Galanti m Results: Mean serum ADA levels in cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (50.93 ± 9.22 U/L), tubercular pleural effusion (42.48 ± 8.2 U/L), non tubercular respiratory diseases (21.03±3.64 U/L) were significantly more than controls (17.07±2.71U/L). But the mean serum ADA value between  pulmonary  tuberculosis and non tubercular respiratory diseases shows higher significant mean difference and was  statistically significant with a p value < 0.01. The mean difference of serum ADA levels between the tubercular pleural effusion and non tubercular respiratory diseases was also statistical significant with a p value < 0.01. Conclusion: We conclude that elevated serum ADA level in pulmonary tuberculosis is statistically significant compared to non tubercular respiratory diseases and healthy controls.

ABSTRACT Context: Medical biochemistry explains the molecular mechanisms of diseases. It has many ‘subject components’ like ‘definitions, classifications, structures, pathways, mechanisms and diseases’.To assist the biochemistry teaching learning process, teaching aids are used by teachers. Many studies have been conducted regarding the optimal use of teaching aids and have focussed importance of using teaching aids in combination.

A Cross-Sectional study on Vitamin D3 level in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients from Chennai, India – P. J.Parameaswari, Carnagarin Revathy, Balasubramanian Shanthi

Abstract:   The present study highlights the importance of Vitamin D3 and its significance in Diabetes. We have recruited 34 type2 diabetes patients cross sectionally who were on regular treatment between 0-5 years from a Community HealthCare Center in Chennai, after obtaining the informed consent in vernacular language. Blood Investigations on Fasting, Post Prandial & Glycosylated Haemoglobin,Vit D3 levels were measured. Our main aim of this study was to elicit the relationship between Vit D3 and HBA1C. Among those participants 15(44.1%) were females and 19(55.9%) males. Data was analysed using SPSS 16.0, and the mean±SE (mean) of  8 patients who had “Good control” (i.e. HBA1C < 7%) was 16.5±0.82. Among them 3(37.5%) were females & 5(62.5%) were males. For 26 patients who were under ‘Bad Control’ (HBA1C ≥7%), Pearson’s coefficient of correlation between HBA1C and Vit D3 was observed to be negative ‘r = – 0.369’ (P = 0.044), which is yet to be perused with larger sample size.

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION:  Arthritis is the initial manifestation of many joint disorder. The most common causes of arthritis are crystal,trauma and infection.Synovial fluid[S.F] analysis provides an easy, noninvasive option in differentiating inflammatory from noninflammatory arthritis.OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study is to determine whether S.F Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) can be useful in differentiating inflammatory from noninflammatory arthritis. METHODS:A total of 56 patients with knee arthritis with joint effusion who were admitted in Vinayaka Mission Kirupananda Variyar Medical College and Hospital, Salem and those who attended the orthopaedic outpatient clinic during the period of October 2011 to March 2012 have been included  in this  study.  There were 14 Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), 7 Crystal induced arthritis, 3 Septic arthritis and 32 Osteoarthritis (OA).RESULTS:Statistically significant difference in mean synovial fluid ADA and hsCRP concentration between inflammatory 35.77±3.95 IU/L, 19.69±4.46 µg/ml and noninflammatory arthritis 12.93±2.06 IU/L, 2.77±0.91 µg/ml (p values<0.0001, 0.0001) was observed. Statistically significant difference in mean synovial fluid ADA and hsCRP concentration was observed when rheumatoid arthritis (22.98±3.21 IU/L,17.54±4.23 µg/ml), crystal induced (24.23±3.34 IU/L, 19.47±3.77 µg/ml), septic arthritis (60.1±5.31 IU/L,22.07±5.40 µg/ml) were compared with osteoarthritis (12.93±2.06 IU/L,2.77±0.91 µg/ml)CONCLUSION:Synovial fluid ADA and hsCRP helps to differentiate inflammatory from noninflammatory arthritis

ABSTRACT Background : Dyslipidemia in chronic renal insufficiency is one of the factors contributing to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular abnormalities. Changes in lipid status and their relation to severity of the disease is an active area of research, both in predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD).Aim and objectives: we have undertaken this study with a view of analyzing the abnormal lipid profile pattern including Lipoprotein(a) or Lp(a), total cholesterol, triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein(LDL) and High Density Lipoprotein(HDL), in all stages of predialysis CKD patients and their correlation with GFR. we have also attempted to study the abnormal lipoprotein metabolism in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (CKD stage V). Materials and methods: A total of 100 non diabetic subjects were further divided into 4 subgroups based on the GFR. Group1 comprising of healthy controls, group 2 of stage I and II CKD patients, group 3 of stage III and IV CKD patients and group 4 of stage V CKD patients on hemodialysis. Fasting blood samples were collected and analyzed for Lp(a), total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL levels. LDL,GFR and BMI were the calculated parameters. GFR was calculated using MDRD formula and LDL by Freidwald’s formula. Statistical analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 16. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson’s Correlation co-efficient and Regression equation were done.   Results: There is an increase in serum Lp(a) levels in all stages of CKD patients but significant increase is seen in groups 3 and 4 patients compared to that of the control group 1 (P<0.01). There is a significant rise in serum triglyceride levels in group 3 patients from that of the controls (P<0.01). There is a decrease in total cholesterol levels in group 4 patients compared to the controls (P<0.01).On comparison of serum LDL levels of controls with the other 3 groups, there is a significant elevation in groups 3 and 4 patients (P<0.01). There is no significant change in the serum HDL levels among the 4 groups. A negative significant correlation has been observed between Lp(a) and GFR. Conclusion: The abnormal lipoprotein pattern especially Lp(a) seen in chronic renal failure patients may start early and progress with the declining renal function. These dysregulated lipoproteins may contribute to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders which is the leading cause of death in these patients.

Lipids & Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] in pregnancy Induced Hypertension

tables malikarjun

Superoxide dismutase levels in leukemias K. N. Pujari,S. P. Jadkar,

Superoxide dismutase levels in leukemias

THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN TYPE 1 DIABETES Muralidhara Krishna C S*, C Vibha*, Manohar C S***, G S Anil Kumar*, K Nanda* ,G Sadanand*, Nisarga**, K L Mahadevappa*

Diabetes is becoming the leading cause of death in developing countries. Asymptomatic thyroid dysfunction is more common in diabetic population, particularly in type 1diabetes. High frequency of Hashimotos thyroiditis in type 1 diabetes cases has also been reported. The present study evaluates the levels of TSH, TmAb and lipid parameters in 36 type1 diabetes cases. TSH was significantly elevated in cases and TmAb was identified in 7 of the 36 cases studied. Presence of TmAb and elevation in TSH were more pronounced in female cases. Serum total cholesterol as well as LDL- cholesterol levels were significantly elevated and Serum HDL-cholesterol was significantly lowered in type 1 diabetics. Elevation in serum total cholesterol was more conspicuous in cases with thyroid antibodies.