Archive for the ‘ Microbiology ’ Category

Microbiological Surveillance of Operation Theatre : Why… What…How …Where…Which…?” S. Poongodi @lakshmi, N. Palaniappan, M.Kannan, S.Nithya gomatheeswari

Abstract Purpose: This study was done to analyze the frequency, extent and methods of microbiological surveillance of OT, efficiency, microbicidal activity  of  product X, advantages of special air filters, air quality , rate and   factors contributing to SSI . Materials & methods:   Surveillance was done in two conventional OTs (GH) and two with special air filters(private) by settle plate, air sampler and surface swab for aerobe & anaerobe, from day 1- 6 in the morning & evening , after formalin and product X.  Microbicidal activity of product X was tested against common isolates. Results:       By settle plate or air sampler, the cfu were less with product X compared to formalin, the M- cfu were less than E- cfu and the cfu in the private OTs were less compared to GH. There was no gradual decrease or increase of cfu from day 1 to 6.Organisms isolated  were Acinetobacter baumanii, CoNS, MSSA and  micrococci in GH,  aerobic spore forming bacilli and  micrococci in private. RCM was negative for Clostridium tetani in all four OTs.  SSI was 14% in GH and Nil in private. Microbicidal activity of product X was good at 1% concentration within 10 mts. Conclusion: Air sampler measures the microbial burden more  accurately..  Settle plate is a direct indicator of SSI risk.  Clostridium tetani as an indicator of air quality may be limited to special situations only.. Peptone water swabs indicate the seriousness of the contaminant. Newer less toxic disinfectants are alternative to formalin. Correlation between microbial burden and SSI by any method is not absolute.


ABSTRACT Context: The study helps to make antibiotic policy in neonatal septicemia.ObjectiveThe present study was undertaken to investigate the high incidence of multidrug resistant β lactamases producing Gram-negative bacilli causing neonatal septicemia along with their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern Design & SettingThe eighteen months prospective study was conducted from June 2011 to Dec 2012. The Blood samples from the suspected neonatal septicemias were processed in the Department of Microbiology SGRDIMSR Amritsar. After identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing, beta-lactamases were detected as per CLSI guidelines.ResultsIn 235 blood cultures 37.87% (89/235) positivity was seen. Out of them, 55.05% were Gram positive and 43.82% were Gram negative isolates while Candida was 1.12%.Among S. aureus 62.0% were MRSA while 37.93% were MSSA. CONS were 40.8%. Klebsiella (25.64%) was predominant gram negative isolate followed by Enterobacter (20.51%), Acinetobacter (17.94%), Pseudomonas (15.38%), E coli (12.8%) and Citrobacter (7.69%).69.23% were lactamases producer gram negative isolates. Maximum 80.0% was in Klebsiella followed by 71.42% Acinetobacter, 66.67% in Citrobacter and Pseudomonas spp 62.5% Enterobacter, and 60.0% in E coli. ESBL producers were maximum 45.74% followed by co-producers of MBL + AmpC 18.5%,ESBL+AmpC 14.8%, ESBL+MBL11.12%,AmpC and MBL 7.4%.ConclusionsThe varying microbiological pattern of neonatal septicaemia warrants the need for periodic review of neonatal sepsis as the knowledge of the pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility would be a useful guide in the antibiotic therapy  This will also facilitate infection control interventions like hand hygiene, patient isolation and contact precautions.

AbstractIntroduction: Health Care Workers (HCW) are at an escalating risk of acquiring blood borne pathogens. Of all, HBV is the one which is vaccine preventable but still sizeable proportion of HCWs never get vaccinated. Further, awareness about HBV and vaccine compliance are poor. The level of immunity after vaccination,  in this population is also  not known. AIM: To study the sero prevalence of HBsAg, anti HBs among vaccinated and unvaccinated HCWs. Materials & Methods: A total of 208 blood samples were collected from HCWs (104 vaccinated and 104 non-vaccinated) from May – July 2011 and tested for anti HBs and HBsAg by ELISA.            Results: Of the 104 vaccinated only 28(27%) had all three doses. Among the  vaccinated 61% (17/28 Three doses), 43% (17/40 Two doses) and  47%  (17/36 single dose) had >100mIU/mL. Of the 104 non- vaccinated, 10 (10%) had >100mIU/mL. Among the vaccinated, 69% (35/51) of <60 kg wt and 30% (16/53) of > 60 kg had more than 100mIU/mL. Of the 52 male, 14(27%)  and among the 52 female, 37(71%) had >100mIU/mL.  Among the fully vaccinated, within 5 years of vaccination, 65%(13/20) and 50% of  more than 5years of vaccination (4/ 8) had > 100mIU/mL.One  incompletely vaccinated and   another one in non vaccinated were positive for HBsAg. Conclusion: This study highlights poor compliance of HBV among HCW. Steps need to be taken to create awareness and the vaccination should be made mandatory for all the persons in health care settings.



A prospective study to determine the effectiveness of Clindamycin (allopathy), Berberis aquifolium (Oregon grape-Homeopathy) and Azadirachta indica( Neem-Ayurvedic) medications against the microorganism causing acne vulgaris.

Abstract :Analyzing antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Uropathogens helps to overcome the therapeutic difficulties created by the emerging antimicrobial resistant bacteria and guides in choosing appropriate empirical therapy. The aim of the study is to understand the susceptibility patterns of the uropathogens which assists in choosing the empirical therapy for UTI. Midstream urine samples were collected cultured and subjected to microscopical and appropriate biochemical tests for proper identification. Antimicrobial sensitivity tests were carried out by disc diffusion technique using Muller Hinton Agar. High level resistance is seen to Cotrimoxazole, Ciprofloxacin, Ceftazidime and Cefipime. Amikacin and Nitrofurantoin were found to be more effective against the isolates. Most of the isolates were sensitive to Imepenem. From our study, Nitrofurantoin is recommended for community acquired UTI and Amikacin for hospital acquired UTI as Empirical treatment.

Title: Profile of Novel Flu Patients Admitted In Two Government Hospitals in Bangalore