Archive for the ‘ Pharmacology ’ Category

Abstract  Background: There is paucity of data on triple drug combination containing low dose (7.5 mg) pioglitazone in Indian type 2 diabetes patients (T2DM). Objective: Comparative evaluation of efficacy and safety of glimepiride, metformin (GM) plus low dose pioglitazone fixed dose combination (FDC) in T2DM. Material and methods: In this open label study, 75 insulin naïve T2DM subjects inadequately controlled on GM oral therapy were randomized into Group A: FDC of G 1mg + M 500 mg SR + Pioglitazone 7.5 mg; Group B: FDC of G 2mg + M 500 mg SR + Pioglitazone 7.5 mg or Group C: Insulin 70/30 Mix + M 500mg SR. The primary outcome measure was reduction in HbA1c at 180 days. The secondary end points included reduction in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) and change in lipid parameters and weight. Results: At baseline mean age, weight, HbA1c, body weight, FPG, PPG, C peptide level, LDL-C, triglyceride and HDL-C were similar in three groups.  All treatments resulted in significant reduction in mean HbA1c. At the end of 180 days, reduction in HbA1c was 1.49%, 1.51% and 1.11% in Group A, B and C respectively. The difference in HbA1c reduction between groups was not statistically significant. At the end of 180 days, the mean reduction in FPG was -66.72+27.12 mg/dl, -79.68+23.87 mg/dl and -69.60+25.34 mg/dl in Group A, B and C respectively. The difference in the reduction of FPG and PPG was not significant between the groups at day 30, 90 and 180. Significant reduction in LDL-C, TG and increase in HDL-C was observed in all groups without significant difference between the groups. No hypoglycemic episodes requiring hospitalization were observed in any group. Change in weight was comparable between groups. Conclusion: Metformin, glimepiride plus low dose pioglitazone FDC is equally efficacious and well tolerated compared to insulin plus metformin in uncontrolled T2DM. This combination may help in postponing insulin therapy.

Abstract: Drug utilisation study on Antihypertensive datas are useful for implementation of rational use of drugs among population. AIM : The aim of the study is to conduct the prescribing survey of antihypertensives in moderate to severe hypertension and in hypertensive complications by the physicians of a tertiary care hospital. Objectives of the study are to investigate the 1) most commonly used antihypertensive drug groups, 2) To determine the preferred drug which suits all age groups and controls symptomatic blood pressure and 3) the antihypertensive drug preferred in diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia 4) and to evaluate the regimen commonly followed Result and concultion In this prescription survey, calcium channel blockers were most commonly prescribed drug in monotherapy as well as combination therapy.  Beta blockers were most commonly used in patients with hypertension associated cardiovascular disease.  Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers were most commonly used in concomitant diseases like, diabetes, mellitus and hyperlipidemia

ABSTRACT     Background: Antitubercular drugs just like other drugs used in clinical practice are not free from ADRs(Adverse drug reactions).The added problem is that combination of drugs are used for prolonged periods of time. Moreover the ADRs to drugs used is one of the major reasons for patient default, hence leading to emergence of resistant organisms. Identification of the ADR profile of drugs in a hospital setup can be useful for the prevention, early detection and  management of ADRs.

ABSTRACT ,OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to describe current treatment practices and to summarize different treatment practices of Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, medical outpatient department patterns and time trends for antihypertensive medication. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional observational study done in the outpatient department of Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, from March to April 2012 for duration of two months a total of 466 prescriptions were collected from outpatient medicine department according the Performa given by WHO based prescription Audit format. RESULTS: A total of 466 prescriptions for essential hypertension were studied.  Age group of 61-70 (125). Less number of patients with age group of 81 – 90 years 6 patients. Sex had been relevant factor in the clinical representation of hypertension out of 466 patients 284 were Females and 182were Males. A Total of 236 patients had one or more concurrent diseases. Among the patients prescribed with a hypertensive, the number of patients receiving single drug were 314(67%). The highly prescribed single drug was Amlodipine 42%. Among the patients prescribed with a hypertensive, the numbers of patients receiving two drugs combinations   were 139(30%). Among the patients prescribed with a hypertensive, the numbers of patients receiving three drugs combinations   were 6(1%).

Effect of risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic on central dopamine-D2 and serotonin- 5HT2 receptor mediated behaviours in rats and mice

Abstract Recent evidence suggests that overactivity of central serotonin 5- HT2 and dopamine  D2 receptors is involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and that central serotonin 5 HT2 receptor antagonism has been associated with efficacy against negative symptoms of schizophrenia and a lower propensity to cause extrapyramidal side effects. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic agent has both dopamine D2 and serotonin 5- HT2 antagonistic activity. To demonstrate dopamine D2 receptor antagonism, risperidone was studied for its effect on apomorphine and methamphetamine induced stereotyped behavior in rats. Risperidone was also studied for its effect on 5- hydroxytryptophan induced head twitch activity in mice, a central serotonin 5- HT2 mediated behavior for demonstrating central 5-HT2 receptor antagonism. It was observed that risperidone antagonized the apomorphine and methamphetamine induced stereotyped behavior in rats as well as the 5- hydroxytryptophan (5-HT) induced head twitch activity in mice, in a dose dependent manner which shows that risperidone combines both central dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2 receptor antagonism.

Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Tinospora cordifolia in rodents, Siddalingappa C.M, Rajesh T, Kudagi B.L, Krishnakanth K, Sujith T.R

Abstract:Context: The currently available drugs for the management of pain, fever and inflammatory conditions presents with many known adverse effects, hence the search for new drugs without adverse effects is required.Objective: To evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of Tinospora cordifolia (AETC) in rodents.Materials and methods: The leaves of Tinospora cordifolia were identified and authenticated by Botanist. The air dried course powdered leaves were extracted with distilled water and used to evaluate analgesic action by Eddy’s hot plate method in mice and anti-inflammatory action by carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. It was tested in five groups of rodents (n=6) for each activity, using 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg of the test drug, 100mg/kg of test drug with 5mg/kg of diclofenac. Diclofenac 5mg/kg and distilled water were used as standard and control, respectively, for both analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.Results: Tinospora cordifolia showed significant increase in the reaction time (pain threshold) in doses of 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 100mg/kg with 5mg/kg of diclofenac after 30, 60 and 90 minutes of administration. In the same above doses, Tinospora cordifolia showed 32.63%, 36.63% and 40.5% inhibition of paw edema respectively at the end of three hours. With diclofenac the percentage of inhibition was 35.64.Conclusion: The present study has shown that AETC has significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The results indicate that identification of active principle from the leaves may add a new, potential analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug to treat acute conditions.

A Comparative Study of the Novel Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitor Ezetimibe with Atorvastatin and Atorvastatin Alone in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Primary Hypercholesterolemia

A Comparative Study of the Novel Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitor Ezetimibe with Atorvastatin and Atorvastatin Alone in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Primary Hypercholesterolemia