Archive for the ‘ Physiology ’ Category


ABSTRACTBackground and objective: The study was undertaken with the objective to find out the distribution of ABO blood groups, gene frequency and genotype frequency in population of Khammam.Materials and Methods: The study group includes a total of 15846 blood donors from Khammam. The study was a retrospective study, all donors were registered in the central blood bank at Mamata Medical College during the period of last five years.Results: The study showed that O is the most common blood group (43.21%) followed by B (30.50%), and then A at (20.38%) while AB is the least prevalent group at (05.91%). The gene frequencies were calculated by using Fisher’s maximum likelihood method modified by Dobson and Ikin, the genotype frequency is calculated by using Hardy–Weinberg principle. The calculated gene frequencies are A 0.140, B 0.202, O0.658; O > B > A.Conclusion: The study provides information about the distribution of blood group in general population of Khammam and that O is prevailing; gene frequency of O is 0.658. This knowledge may help us to safeguard against the diseases that are likely to influence O gene.

AbstractBackground: It is well documented that stress and anxiety can lead to over eating and obesity. The objective of the study was to explore the possible effect of academic examination stress on development of overweight/obesity in medical students.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted which included 150 first year medical students  of 2013 batch . Perceived Stress scale questionnaire was given and assessed prior to and during the examination. BMI was calculated prior and after examinations for students with height and weight data.Results: Moderate amount of perceived Stress was prevalent among the students, more in the overweight BMI category of students and both Perceived Stress scores and BMI among medical students increased after exam and was found to be statistically significant.Conclusion: The positive correlation between PSS and B.M.I demonstrated that stress increases the development of overweight/Obesity.

 Abstract  Background:  Medical students of varied background seek admissions in medical colleges and are exposed to excess workload, high level of competition, parental pressure and new environment at the outset which can lead to high levels of stress and psychological morbidity among medical students. Aims and Objectives: To assess the Psychological Health of Indian Medical college Students and also to determine the effects of academic examination stressor using GHQ-12 questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Cross sectional study. 150 students (100 males and 50 females) were selected from 2013 batch of medical students. Data about stress was collected using the GHQ12 questionnaire prior to and during the examination.Results: On statistically analysing the results of our study we found that all the medical students had significant higher values of GHQ-12  score both before(P value-0.002)and during the examination period(P value-0.025) .Both in males and females stress levels were significantly higher( P value-<0.001).  Conclusion:  Medical students have psychological stress which can get exaggerated during academic examinations. Need for stress management and alternate methods of assessment of medical students required.

THE EFFECT OF SEMINAL OXIDATIVE STRESS ON MALE FERTILITY – Tamilselvan K.*1, SheelaRavinder S. 2, Thangavel G.3 , Subhashini A.S. 2, Padmavathi R.2

ABSTRACT Background: Male infertility occurs as a result of many pathological conditions. The role of oxidative stress is implicated in its cause. This study has been planned to evaluate the effect of oxidative stress on male fertility. Aim and objective: To estimate the level of seminal plasma malondialdehyde(MDA) in normospermic and oligozoospermic men andto assess its effectson seminal parameters that determines the fertility.  Methodology: It is a hospital based cross-sectional study with the study population comprising of 10 normospermic men for the contol group and 10 oligospermic volunteers for the case group who were recruited based on their seminal parameters of sperm count, motility, morphology and viability .The marker of oxidative stress, malondialdehyde(MDA) was estimated in their seminal samples according to the method of Okhawa et al. to reflect the degree of oxidative stress.  Results:  The level of MDA was 10.94 ± 4.03µg/ml in oligospermic when compared to normospermic men who had 6.37 ± 2.90 µg/ml and the increase in oligospermic is statistically significant (p<0.05) which correlates inversely with the sperm count, motility and viability.  Conclusion: The elevated levels of MDA in the seminal samples of oligospermic men reflects the occurrence of oxidative stress and this is obvious by the reduction in the sperm parameters of count, motility and viability in the oligospermic group,thus leading to infertility.

BLOOD TYPES AND PERSONALITY TRAITS: IS THERE REALLY A CORRELATION? – Jonas Suganthan Sundarakumar, K. Uma Maheswari , M. Somasundaram

ABSTRACT: Context: The theory that there is a possible correlation between blood types and personality characteristics has been floating for a long time. Though there have been many attempts to evaluate this theory, the results have been inconsistent and can be best described as conflicting. Aim: The aim of our study was to explore a possible correlation between blood groups and certain specific personality traits, in a large sample of medical students in south India.Setting: The study was conducted at Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Medical Sciences, Maduranthagam, India, in November-December, 2012.Participants: Our study included 502 medical students of the age group 18 – 22 years.Methods: ABO blood typing was done using the Agglutination method. For assessment of personality traits, we used one of the most researched, reliable and validated personality assessment tools, namely the Eysenk Personality Questionnaire – Revised (EPQ-R). EPQ-R assesses the three major personality dimensions: P (Psychoticism or “Tough Mindedness”), N (Neuroticism or “Emotionality”) and E (Extraversion or “Sociability”). Analysis of data was done using SPSS software (version 15). MANOVA and Tukey’s HSD were the statistical tests used to determine statistical significance. Results and Conclusion: Our study revealed a significant difference in ‘Extraversion’ scores between the blood groups B and AB. However, when the analysis was done separately for males and females, there was no significant correlation between blood types and personality traits. This implies gender was probably a confounding factor responsible for the initial difference in ‘Extraversion’ scores. So, the conclusion of our study was that there was no real correlation between blood groups and personality traits.


ABSTRACT Background: Smoking now is identified as a major cause of respiratory diseases, heart related ailments, cancer and a wide variety of other health problems. The total number of tobacco users in the world has been estimated at 1.2 billion, which is expected to rise 1.6 billion during 2020’s.At present, tobacco use causes death of    3.5 ­to 4 million people globally and expected to increase about 10 million during 2020’s. It is well known that the acute effects of smoking produce an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, tachycardia, cardiac output and vasoconstriction, increase in carotid artery occlusion, and sometimes instantaneous MI.  The present study is being undertaken to study the effects of smoking on electrocardiogram and blood pressure among smokers and non-smokers.Objectiv   To study the variation of ECG wave forms in healthy young smokers compared to nonsmokersMethodology: The study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Vijayanagar Institute of Medical Sciences, Bellary, Karnataka. The study included 100 apparently healthy males, 50 smokers and 50 non-smokers, between ages 20-35 years. Demographic data, history of smoking habit (quantity and duration) and detailed medical history were obtained from the subjects. Electrocardiogram was recorded during resting state in supine position. The ECG recordings were evaluated for different parameters like heart rate, PR interval, QRS complex, QRS axis, QT interval, QTc interval, ST segment, Q wave and T wave. Results were compared from the two groups using statistical tools.Results: There was statistically significant increase in heart rate, decrease in PR interval, decrease in QT interval, increase in QTc interval, decrease in QRS axis, decrease in T wave amplitude, occurrence of Q wave in smokers when compared to non-smokers.

ABSTRACT Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a specific and sensitive noninvasive tool to evaluate cardiac autonomic activity. Our study focuses on using Heart Rate Variability to determine and compare cardiac autonomic status in asymptomatic and symptomatic menopausal women. Methods: Subjects were categorized as asymptomatic menopausal women (n=50) and symptomatic menopausal women (n=50) based on 21 postmenopausal symptoms given in The Greene Climacteric Scale. ECG was recorded in a quiet room with the subject in supine position after 10 minutes of rest. Analog ECG signal was converted to digital by using National Instruments NI-DAQ 7.5 USBD 6008. HRV parameters like SDNN, E: I, LF nu, HF nu, LF/HF was calculated with the help of HRV software (version 1.1). Results: There was a significant (p<0.001) decrease in SDNN, E/I ratio, HF nu and a significant (p<0.001) increase in LF nu, LF/HF in symptomatic women, compared with asymptomatic women. Conclusion: In symptomatic menopausal women our study showed a significant reduction in parasympathetic activity and a significant increase in sympathetic activity. There was a shift in the sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance among symptomatic menopausal women in contrast to asymptomatic menopausal women.

Abstract:Osteoporosis,is one of the global problem which causes deterioration of the bone microarchitecture and thereby  results in fragility fractures, pain and disability. It is usually associated with old age, hormonal insufficiency.Recently it is known to be associated with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus is a pandemic metabolic disorder and is a known to be a major risk factor of osteoporotic fractures. Bone is continuously renewed and remodeled and regulated by various factors such as the balance between osteoblast and osteoclast, leptin mediated pathway, leptin regulation of bone resorption and through cannabinoid receptors. But in type 2 DM because of insulin insensitivity, leptin insensitivity, altered osteoblast and osteoclast function, there occurs alteration of bone remodeling which results in osteoporosis. DM mediated osteoporosis is multifactorial. This review explains the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mediated osteoporosis


ABSTRACT:Aim: Present study was aimed to quantify selected physical fitness measures in elite sprinters and compare it with age-matched controls. Material methods: Sprinters who had participated in different state and national athletic meets with four years of playing history where selected for this study. Ethical committee clearance was obtained and written consent was taken from subjects involved in the study.  Database of 30 male sprinters and age-matched controls for flexibility and agility was compiled. After compilation of this data, it was statistically analyzed by unpaired T test and P value of less than 0.05 was noted.  Results: Our study revealed a highly significant (P value < 0.001) relationship in flexibility between sprinters and controls by all three tests used to quantify flexibility. Whereas agility was significant using Burpee’s squat test and highly significant using shuttle run and quadrant jump test in these two groups. Conclusion: To help sprinters perform successfully in their competitions and reach international levels, important factors related to a successful performance should be identified and all such physical fitness measures should be assessed in selection criteria. In addition to this regular preseason training programs with different means to improve these parameters should be inculcated.

ABSTRACT:       Background & Objective: Cigarette smoking has become a major avoidable cause of diseases like stroke, Ischemic heart disease and occlusive vascular disease. Smoking increases mortality nearly five times between age group of 30-40 years who are likely to be free from other myocardial risk factors. Hyperthrombic state in smokers may be attributed to enhanced platelet activity which may be reflected in terms of platelet count and platelet aggragabilty. Previous studies have reported many conflicting results on these parameters.The present work was undertaken to study the effect of cigarette smoking on platelet count and platelet aggregability in young & well educated male smokers and compare the results with non-smokers.Methods: Total sample size was 70 which included a mixed population of male doctors & engineers [smokers (n=35) & non-smokers (n=35)] between the age group 26-40 yrs. They were selected on the basis of smoking of filtered cigarettes minimum 5 per day for duration ≤ 10 years. Platelet count was done on Sysmex K-4500 Autoanalyser. Platelet aggragbility was estimated by O’Brien’s method using ADP.  Observations: Our results showed a statistically significant increase in the platelet aggragbility (P< 0.01 & Z >2). The change in the platelet count was statistically insignificant.Conclusion: As per our study increased platelet adhesiveness is evidenced even in young smokers with duration of smoking less than 10 years. Such young population which is otherwise free from the predisposing factors like obesity, hypertension, diabetes etc. can be encouraged to adopt healthier lifestyles and quit smoking so that future health related consequences can be avoided.

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