Background: The metabolic syndrome consists of constellation of central obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol. Elevated serum Complement C3 levels independently predicted incident type 2 diabetes and increased cardiovascular risk in prospective studies in apparently healthy men and women.

The present study was done to determine the association of serum Complement C3 in Metabolic Syndrome as well as to determine its relation with individual components of metabolic syndrome & number of components metabolic syndrome.

Materials and Methods Our study included 50 subjects with Metabolic Syndrome as per IDF criteria for South Asians and 50 age and sex matched controls. Detailed history, anthropometric assessment, blood pressure recording, blood investigation including complete hemogram, urea, creatinine, Fasting blood sugar, Fasting lipid profile and complement C3 levels was done.

Results: In our study there were 23 male and 27 female subjects with metabolic syndrome and 22 male and 28 female subjects in the control group. Significant difference (p<0.001) was noted between the two groups with respect to height, weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, FBS, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, VLDL, triglycerides, total count.


Complement C3 levels were significantly elevated in subjects with metabolic syndrome compared to the control population (139.95±9.59, 102.12±6.65; p<0.001). Significant difference was also noted in women with metabolic syndrome compared to men with metabolic syndrome (p<0.001).Complement C3 correlated significantly with waist circumference, BMI and total count. C3 also correlated with TC, LDL, HDL, triglycerides but was not significant. As the number of metabolic syndrome components increased, there was significant increase in complement C3 levels (p<0.05). Triglycerides and VLDL also increased with increase in number of metabolic syndrome components.


Conclusion: The results of the present study conclude that subjects with metabolic syndrome have significantly high levels of Complement C3 compared to healthy subjects. Also women have higher Complement C3 compared to men with metabolic syndrome and thus are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Complement C3 may be used as a marker in subjects with metabolic syndrome to assess the cardiovascular risk.

Key words: Metabolic Syndrome, Complement C3, Waist circumference, Obesity, Diabetes, Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, Cardiovascular disease.