ABSTRACT We report a case of 65 year female with 7 days history of pain in abdomen, vomiting, constipation and abdominal distension. X-Rays abdomen showed multiple air fluid levels and dilated small bowel loops. Ultrasound abdomen showed dilated gut loops and stone in the gall bladder.Exploratory laparotomy was done and a single 4×3 cm round stone with smooth surface was found in terminal ileum.

Abstract Congenital anomalies of the gall bladderinclude its complete absence, hypoplasia and atresia, duplication, excessive mobility and ectopias, but they are very rare.Suprahepaticanteriorly placed gall bladder with chronic budd chiari syndrome is an extremely rare congenital anomaly. We report incidental radiological findings associated with a 66 yr old male, with no past history of related symptoms,who was admitted for evaluation after a history of assault. Imaging by computed tomographydemonstrated suprahepatic anteriorly placed gall bladder and portal vein with chronic budd chiari syndrome.

ABSTRACT: Context: The theory that there is a possible correlation between blood types and personality characteristics has been floating for a long time. Though there have been many attempts to evaluate this theory, the results have been inconsistent and can be best described as conflicting. Aim: The aim of our study was to explore a possible correlation between blood groups and certain specific personality traits, in a large sample of medical students in south India.Setting: The study was conducted at Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Medical Sciences, Maduranthagam, India, in November-December, 2012.Participants: Our study included 502 medical students of the age group 18 – 22 years.Methods: ABO blood typing was done using the Agglutination method. For assessment of personality traits, we used one of the most researched, reliable and validated personality assessment tools, namely the Eysenk Personality Questionnaire – Revised (EPQ-R). EPQ-R assesses the three major personality dimensions: P (Psychoticism or “Tough Mindedness”), N (Neuroticism or “Emotionality”) and E (Extraversion or “Sociability”). Analysis of data was done using SPSS software (version 15). MANOVA and Tukey’s HSD were the statistical tests used to determine statistical significance. Results and Conclusion: Our study revealed a significant difference in ‘Extraversion’ scores between the blood groups B and AB. However, when the analysis was done separately for males and females, there was no significant correlation between blood types and personality traits. This implies gender was probably a confounding factor responsible for the initial difference in ‘Extraversion’ scores. So, the conclusion of our study was that there was no real correlation between blood groups and personality traits.

AbstracBackground: Acute normovolaemic haemodilution (ANH) is one of the types of autotransfusion which can be used as an alternative method of replacing lost blood during surgery. Normovolaemia has to be maintained during ANH by administering sufficient volume of haemodiluents either crystalloids or colloids. Aim: To compare prospectively the effects of two haemodiluents, Crystalloid (Ringer lactate) and Colloid (Polygeline) in moderate Acute Normovolaemic haemodilution (ANH). Methodology: 50 patients(ASA physical status I or II) undergoing elective gynaecological surgeries with an estimated prediction of blood loss from 500-750ml in each patient were divided into two groups of 25 each. In Group R – Ringer lactate in the ratio of 3:1 and in Group H –Polygeline (Haemaccel) in the ratio of 1.5:1 were used during haemodilution. Heart rate, systolic BP, diastolic BP, SPO2 and Haematocrit were observed before and after haemodilution, before and after retransfusion of the blood. All the data were analyzed using Student’s ‘t’ test and P values < 0.05 were taken to be significant. Results: During all the stages there were no statistical differences in heart rate, systolic BP, Diastolic BP, SPO2, Haematocrit and surgical blood loss between the two groups. Conclusion: We conclude that during moderate acute normovolaemic haemodilution(ANH) either Ringer’s lactate or Polygeline(Haemaccel) can be used as replacement fluid as both are comparable in terms of haemodynamic stability, oximetric and haematological profiles.

ABSTRACT Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem across the world and commonly involves the lungs. Analysis of adenosine deaminase activity is a very useful diagnostic approach to achieve a more rapid and precise diagnosis in serosal fluids and serum of pulmonary tuberculosis.  Objectives: To estimate the serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels in pulmonary tuberculosis and other common respiratory diseases & to evaluate the role of serum ADA estimation in differentiation of tubercular and common non tubercular respiratory diseases. Methods:  The study was a hospital based, non randomized comparative study conducted at Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore and DOT centres of RNTCP, BBMP, Bangalore.                                        We measured serum adenosine deaminase levels in 3 groups, group Ι: 41 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, group ΙΙ: 30 cases of tubercular pleural effusion, group ΙΙΙ: 49 cases of non tubercular respiratory diseases viz, bronchiectasis, chronic bronchitis in the age group of 20 – 64 years over a period of one year. Age and sex matched 30 healthy volunteers, were taken as controls. Estimation of serum ADA was done by sensitive colorimetric method described by Giusti and Galanti m Results: Mean serum ADA levels in cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (50.93 ± 9.22 U/L), tubercular pleural effusion (42.48 ± 8.2 U/L), non tubercular respiratory diseases (21.03±3.64 U/L) were significantly more than controls (17.07±2.71U/L). But the mean serum ADA value between  pulmonary  tuberculosis and non tubercular respiratory diseases shows higher significant mean difference and was  statistically significant with a p value < 0.01. The mean difference of serum ADA levels between the tubercular pleural effusion and non tubercular respiratory diseases was also statistical significant with a p value < 0.01. Conclusion: We conclude that elevated serum ADA level in pulmonary tuberculosis is statistically significant compared to non tubercular respiratory diseases and healthy controls.