ABSTRACT Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a specific and sensitive noninvasive tool to evaluate cardiac autonomic activity. Our study focuses on using Heart Rate Variability to determine and compare cardiac autonomic status in asymptomatic and symptomatic menopausal women. Methods: Subjects were categorized as asymptomatic menopausal women (n=50) and symptomatic menopausal women (n=50) based on 21 postmenopausal symptoms given in The Greene Climacteric Scale. ECG was recorded in a quiet room with the subject in supine position after 10 minutes of rest. Analog ECG signal was converted to digital by using National Instruments NI-DAQ 7.5 USBD 6008. HRV parameters like SDNN, E: I, LF nu, HF nu, LF/HF was calculated with the help of HRV software (version 1.1). Results: There was a significant (p<0.001) decrease in SDNN, E/I ratio, HF nu and a significant (p<0.001) increase in LF nu, LF/HF in symptomatic women, compared with asymptomatic women. Conclusion: In symptomatic menopausal women our study showed a significant reduction in parasympathetic activity and a significant increase in sympathetic activity. There was a shift in the sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance among symptomatic menopausal women in contrast to asymptomatic menopausal women.

ABSTRACT Context: Medical biochemistry explains the molecular mechanisms of diseases. It has many ‘subject components’ like ‘definitions, classifications, structures, pathways, mechanisms and diseases’.To assist the biochemistry teaching learning process, teaching aids are used by teachers. Many studies have been conducted regarding the optimal use of teaching aids and have focussed importance of using teaching aids in combination.

ABSTRACT Electrothermal injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality.  Documentation of injuries is important not only for the immediate resuscitation of  the   victims but also medicolegally.  Most of the  cases of electrical injuries   involve litigation   or  worker compensation..  Cutaneous  electro thermal injuries  in 22 cases  from the department of pathology, BMC&RI Bangalore was correlated with the various patterns based on morphology and also  to  estimate the changes in vital organs. The pattern of cutaneous injury appears to persist in all 22 cases with observation of changes in both skin and vital organs. This study shows  combined  pattern of morphology not compatible with single pattern .Thus, establishment of histomorphological patterns in skin & vital organs appear to be useful in monitoring tissue damage.The epidermal changes includes   denudation of epidermis, blister formation  and  streaming of  epidermal  nuclei. Dermal changes includes edema,    extravasation of RBC’s and coagulative necrosis .

Abstract:Osteoporosis,is one of the global problem which causes deterioration of the bone microarchitecture and thereby  results in fragility fractures, pain and disability. It is usually associated with old age, hormonal insufficiency.Recently it is known to be associated with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus is a pandemic metabolic disorder and is a known to be a major risk factor of osteoporotic fractures. Bone is continuously renewed and remodeled and regulated by various factors such as the balance between osteoblast and osteoclast, leptin mediated pathway, leptin regulation of bone resorption and through cannabinoid receptors. But in type 2 DM because of insulin insensitivity, leptin insensitivity, altered osteoblast and osteoclast function, there occurs alteration of bone remodeling which results in osteoporosis. DM mediated osteoporosis is multifactorial. This review explains the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mediated osteoporosis

ABSTRACT:Aim: Present study was aimed to quantify selected physical fitness measures in elite sprinters and compare it with age-matched controls. Material methods: Sprinters who had participated in different state and national athletic meets with four years of playing history where selected for this study. Ethical committee clearance was obtained and written consent was taken from subjects involved in the study.  Database of 30 male sprinters and age-matched controls for flexibility and agility was compiled. After compilation of this data, it was statistically analyzed by unpaired T test and P value of less than 0.05 was noted.  Results: Our study revealed a highly significant (P value < 0.001) relationship in flexibility between sprinters and controls by all three tests used to quantify flexibility. Whereas agility was significant using Burpee’s squat test and highly significant using shuttle run and quadrant jump test in these two groups. Conclusion: To help sprinters perform successfully in their competitions and reach international levels, important factors related to a successful performance should be identified and all such physical fitness measures should be assessed in selection criteria. In addition to this regular preseason training programs with different means to improve these parameters should be inculcated.