Abstract: Armored tubes are being widely used in anaesthesia practise where surgeries involving procedures in which kinking is anticipated. Kinking of armored tubes is uncommon but it can happen when a reusable tube is used and there have been reports of armored tube kinking both intraorally and extraorally. Hence prompt anticipation of tube kinking is mandatory even when armored tubes are used. Herewith we report a case of unusual complication of armored tube kinking in prone position.

Abstract: Drug utilisation study on Antihypertensive datas are useful for implementation of rational use of drugs among population. AIM : The aim of the study is to conduct the prescribing survey of antihypertensives in moderate to severe hypertension and in hypertensive complications by the physicians of a tertiary care hospital. Objectives of the study are to investigate the 1) most commonly used antihypertensive drug groups, 2) To determine the preferred drug which suits all age groups and controls symptomatic blood pressure and 3) the antihypertensive drug preferred in diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia 4) and to evaluate the regimen commonly followed Result and concultion In this prescription survey, calcium channel blockers were most commonly prescribed drug in monotherapy as well as combination therapy.  Beta blockers were most commonly used in patients with hypertension associated cardiovascular disease.  Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers were most commonly used in concomitant diseases like, diabetes, mellitus and hyperlipidemia

ABSTRACT Background: Male infertility occurs as a result of many pathological conditions. The role of oxidative stress is implicated in its cause. This study has been planned to evaluate the effect of oxidative stress on male fertility. Aim and objective: To estimate the level of seminal plasma malondialdehyde(MDA) in normospermic and oligozoospermic men andto assess its effectson seminal parameters that determines the fertility.  Methodology: It is a hospital based cross-sectional study with the study population comprising of 10 normospermic men for the contol group and 10 oligospermic volunteers for the case group who were recruited based on their seminal parameters of sperm count, motility, morphology and viability .The marker of oxidative stress, malondialdehyde(MDA) was estimated in their seminal samples according to the method of Okhawa et al. to reflect the degree of oxidative stress.  Results:  The level of MDA was 10.94 ± 4.03µg/ml in oligospermic when compared to normospermic men who had 6.37 ± 2.90 µg/ml and the increase in oligospermic is statistically significant (p<0.05) which correlates inversely with the sperm count, motility and viability.  Conclusion: The elevated levels of MDA in the seminal samples of oligospermic men reflects the occurrence of oxidative stress and this is obvious by the reduction in the sperm parameters of count, motility and viability in the oligospermic group,thus leading to infertility.

Abstract:Context: The use of ultrasound in regional anaesthesia has resulted in reduction in local anaesthetic volume and adverse effects.Aim : This study aims to compare the quality of analgesia and incidence of adverse effects using two different volumes of 0.5 % bupivacaine for clavicular surgeries by ultrasound guided combined interscalene and superficial cervical plexus block.Settings and Design: randomized controlled double blinded interventional study  Methods and Material: 60 patients undergoing clavicular surgery were randomized to receive ultrasound guided interscalene block of either 15 ml (group L) or 25 ml (Group H) of 0.5 % bupivacaine and 10 ml of 0.25 % bupivacaine for superficial plexus block. Both the groups were assessed for quality of intraoperative and postoperative analgesia by sensory, motor block. Hemidiaphragmatic paresis was assessed by ultrasound guided diaphragmatic movement.

Abstract – Introduction Urachal cyst is very rarely seen in adults. They are normally obliterated in early infancy. Urachal abnormalities are more common in children. - Case presentation -We describe a case of a 35 years South Indian male who presented with intermittent lower abdominal pain. He also had a history of discharge from umbilicus which subsided on treatment with antibiotics. No mass was palpable per abdomen. CT scan abdomen was done which showed a cystic lesion 1.3 x 1 cm about 4 cm inferior to the umbilicus which was suggestive of urachal cyst. Exploratory laparotomy was performed. Urachal cyst excised. The distal urachal ligament was obliterated and fibrous. No communication was found to the bladder. Histopathology confirmed it to be urachal cyst. Postoperative period was uneventful. Patient was relieved of abdominal pain on outpatient follow-up after 3 months - Conclusion -Urachal abnormalities are rare in adults. Clinical presentation was as chronic intermittent abdominal pain which was nonspecific. A high index of suspicion required to arrive at the diagnosis. The investigation modalities didn’t offer conclusive diagnosis.  Excision relieved the abdominal pain.